مقاله درباره فسفات

مقاله درباره فسفات

فسفات ترکیبی غیر آلی و نمک اسید فسفریک است. در جهان طبیعت هرگز فسفر به شکل خالص دیده نشده‌است. اما تنها به شکل فسفات دیده شده که شامل اتم فسفر تشکیل پیوند داده با چهار اتم اکسیژن می‌باشد. این می‌تواند به شکل یون فسفات دارای بار منفی شده (P3O4-) که در مواد معدنی یا به عنوان ارگانوفسفات که به مولکول‌های زیستی چسبیده به یک، دو یا سه اتم اکسیژن هستند وجود دارد.

خاک فسفات

خاک فسفات که فرم خالص تر آن آپاتیت نام دارد و بدین شکل نوشته می‌شود P2O5، یک کانی رسوبی است. شکل ظاهری این ترکیب، بصورت سنگ و صخره تیره رنگ است. خاک فسفات در طبیعت به اشکال مختلف سنگی و پودری مشاهده می‌گردد و آنالیزهای مختلف از آن وجود دارد ولی در کل فسفر در خاک بسیار کمیاب می‌باشد.

استخراج

خاک فسفات (PR) نام عمومی برای توضیح ترکیب معدنی طبیعی حاوی غلظت بالایی از فسفات معدنی می‌باشد. این عبارت برای نامگذاری هر دو حالت فسفات و ناخالصی‌های آن کاربرد دارد. کانی‌های رسوبی خاک فسفات تقریباً ۸۰ تا ۹۰ درصد این محصول را در ۱۰ سال گذشته در جهان تأمین نموده است. انواع خاک فسفات دارای ترکیبات شیمیایی و شکل‌های فیزیکی بسیار متفاوتی هستند. گاهی بصورت لایه‌های مسطح باریک یا به شکل روباره‌های کم عمق.

بزرگ‌ترین معادن خاک فسفات جهان در کشور مراکش وسوریه و دیگر کشورهای آفریقایی، آمریکا، خاورمیانه و چین قرار دارند. بیشتر کانی‌های فسفات حاوی فلوراپاتیت-کربنات معروف به فرانکولیت هستند. فرانکولیت‌های با میزان کربنات زیاد، جایگزینی برای فسفات هستند که بسیار فعال بوده و کاملاً مناسب برای بکار بردن مستقیم به عنوان کود کشاورزی یا اصلاح‌کننده خاک می‌باشند.

کانی‌های آتشفشانی در حدود ۱۰ تا ۲۰ درصد تولید خاک فسفات در جهان را طی ۱۰ سال گذشته در اختیار داشتند. این نوع معادن در فدراسیون روسیه، کانادا، آفریقای جنوبی، برزیل، فنلاند و زیمباوه و همچنین اوگاندا، مالاوی، سری لانکا و چند کشور دیگر استخراج می‌شوند. این کانی‌های فسفات معمولاً دارای انواع متفاوت فلوراپاتیت غیرفعال می‌باشند که برای اعمال مستقیم در کشاورزی زیاد مناسب نیستند.

منابع                                                                                                                                   

  1. Phosphates – PubChem Public Chemical Database”The PubChem Project. USA: National Center of Biotechnology Information.

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